How are interconnected/nested organizational structures set up? Do they prevent the abuse of power?
In small scale contexts, it is possible to interact in personal ways without much structure. But once an organization reaches a certain level of complexity, heterarchies are essential. Heterarchies merge peer relationships with hierarchical forms of organization; that is: they combine vertical and horizontal forms of organization. Heterarchical structures allow flexible, modular forms of participation, and therefore can be easily adapted or restructured. They strengthen individual agency and autonomy, help prevent interpersonal rifts, and reduce bureaucracy.
# Examples - In the federation of cooperative housing projects, Mietshäuser Syndikat , the umbrella organisation functions as a coordinator and information distributor. The affiliated housing associations remain autonomous. - The Sociocracy model of peer governance consists of many overlapping circles of participation, often connected to a single or multiple larger ones. This replaces the pyramid-shaped structures that many institutions are based on. - The Occupy Wallstreet occupations and other activities were not led by a central leader. Instead, individual activists decided what needed to be done and coordinated their initiatives amongst themselves. But at the same time, this level of peer-organized division of responsibility was connected to (informal) flatter hierarchies.